About Journal

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research  (Bas.J.Vet.Res.) is the official journal of College of  Veterinary Medicine, University of  Basrah, Iraq. The Journal is a biannual international peer-reviewed, open access research publication covering all aspects of veterinary science. The journal publishes original papers in English, case reports and reviews relevant to any area of veterinary sciences and veterinary medicine.    
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  bjvr@uobasrah.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Alaa A.Sawad

Print ISSN: 1813-8497

Online ISSN: 2410-8456

CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ocimum basilicum SEEDS OIL AND inum usitatissimum SEEDS OIL ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGING AGAINST ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN MALE RABBITS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1-25
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161463

The current study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of Ocimum basilicum seeds oil and Linum usitatissimum seeds oil on some physiological parameter and histopathological changes when induced acute myocardial infarction in rabbits by isoproterenol.Thirty-six male rabbits were divided into six groups: group (C): control negative,group (ISO): received isoproterenol (control positive), (BP) group: basil seed oil protective group, (FP) group: flaxseed oilprotective group, (BT) group: basil seed oil treated group and (FT)group: flax seed oil treated group. The results showed thata significant decrease in the biomarker enzymes(CK-MB, LDH, AST, ALT and ALP) concentration and serum MDA in the BP, FP, BT, and FT groups compare with ISO group. In addition to that, the basil oil and flaxseed oil protect and improvement histopathological findings in the myocardium tissue of isoproterenol effect.

COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN HORMONAL BLOOD SERUM AND OVARIAN FOLLICULAR FLUID DURING SEASON AND OUT SEASON IN BITCHES

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 26-35
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161466

       The functions of  the ovaries are controlled by many   exogenous and endogenous factors,  including changes in the biochemical and endocrine glands that occur in the follicular fluid during the breeding season in the bitches. The aim of this study was  to determine and compare the concentrations some hormonal in the peripheral circulation and follicular fluid of bitches during the breeding season.  For this purpose, ovaries collected from adult bitches immediately after ovariectomy,  and blood samples were  also collected from these bitches before and after season. The follicular fluid and blood serum samples were analyzed for hormonal concentrations using commercial kits.
 The results showed that  the concentrations of estrogen,  progesterone and testosterone  in blood serum at season (54.31±0.49, 20.75 ±0.12, 0.75±0.05) respectively. While the concentrations of estrogen,  progesterone and testosterone in blood serum at out season (10.88±0.39, 0. 61±0.036, 0.063±0.042) respectively.The concentrations of estrogen,  progesterone and testosterone in follicular fluid at season (69.9±0.44, 28.46±0.82, 0.331±0.65) respectively. While  the concentrations of estrogen,  progesterone and testosterone in follicular fluid out season (there are no found ovarian follicles).    
 The present study a significantly higher (P< 0.05) in blood serum and follicular fluid  at  season than  that out season blood serum.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF ISOLATED ALKALOID FROM HALOXYLON SALICORNICUM PLANT ON SOME HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GASTRIC ULCERATION RABBITS INDUCED BY INDOMETHACIN

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 36-55
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161484

This study was undertaken to isolate alkaloids from Haloxylon Salicornicum plant to show the curative effect after short-term daily orall administration for 10 days (300 mg/Kg B.W.) on gastric ulcer,hematological parameters and some biochemical parameters in gastric ulceration rabbits induced by indomethacin.Moreover,some qualitative chemical analysis,thin layer chromatography,UVspectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify alkaloid compound .Rabbits were divided randomly into three groups,6 rabbits in each.Group one received 3 ml normal saline orally (control group).Group two was treated with indomethacin (75 mg/Kg B.W.) (gastric ulceration group).Third group gastric ulceration rabbits post-treated with isolated alkaloid (300 mg/Kg B.W.).The results of the present study indicated that isolated alkaloid has Rf= 0.86,high significant decreased (p≤0.001) in RBC,Hb,PCVand mucin,(P ≤ 0.01) in MCHC and PH,no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) in MCH in gastric ulceration rabbits compared with control group and observed high significant increased (p≤0.001) in MCV, MDA and gastric juce volume,WBCcount appeared high significant increased (P≤0.01).While, observed high significant increased(P≤ 0.001) in Hb,PCVand mucin,(P≤ 0.01) in RBC,MCHC and pH.Significant increased(P≤0.05) in MCH after treated with isolated alkaloid and high significantly decrease (P ≤ 0.001)in MCV,gastric juce volume and MDA
 
and significant decrease (p≤0.05) inWBC count compared with gastric ulceration group .This study concluded that isolated alkaloid from Haloxylon Salicoricum plant can be used to treat gastric ulcer effectively .   

IDENTIFICATION AND SEROTYPING OF SALMONELLA ISOLATES ISOLATED FROM SOME ANIMAL MEAT

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 56-68
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161485

This research was already prescribed for the identification and serotyping of Salmonella isolates from 205 samples totally different, including frozen chicken meat(thigh, wings, liver, 40 samples for each one), 40 samples of frozen beef meat 4  and fresh beef meat ( liver, muscle, and ground beef , 15 each ) in Basrah throughout the amount between 4th October 2017 to 27th February2018. Results showed that the overall rate of Salmonella isolates were 22.4 percent by conventional victimization isolation of Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (XLD).The highest percentagewas appeared in liver of imported frozen chicken meat (80%), while the lowest percentage was in liver of local fresh beef (6.6%). The results of identification of Salmonella by conventional biochemical test and API 20 E system were76.0% and 84% , respectively, while the results of PCR technique by using 16srRNA was( 20/20)100% . The result of serotyping on Salmonellaisolates revealed that serotype SalmonellaTyphimurium (40%), whereas the lower number was Salmonella serotype Kentucky  (15%).

DETECTION OF ENTEROTOXIN GENES AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN IN YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA ISOLATED FROM CHEESE IN BASRAH

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 69-84
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161486

One hundred fifty cheese samples were collected between 8 October 2017 to February 2018. Fifty samples from each  cows , buffalos and sheep. The sample transferred to TSB (tryptone soy broth) and PBS (Phosphate buffer saline) for enrichment and cooled enrichment procedure respectively. Using Yersinia selective agar TSB enrichment showed high percentage of suspected Yersinia isolation. Eleven isolates from cow cheese (22%), 10 isolates from buffaloes cheese (20%) and  8 isolates from sheep cheese (12%). In contrast PBS enrichment showed better selectivity to reduce bacterial number other than suspected Yersinia enterocolitica isolates.  The results indicate there were 8 isolates from cow cheese (22%), 9 isolates from buffaloes cheese (20%) and 7 isolates from sheep cheese (16 %). The suspected colonies that grow on selective agar and having bull eye appearance were subjected to biochemical identification. The results showed that cow and buffaloes cheese were contaminated with this bacterium at the percentage of  8% and 6% respectively. Sheep cheese was also contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica at a percentage of 4 %. The total percentage of isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica from all animals were 6.%.. The isolated strains were highly susceptible toward azithromycin, streptomycin, and Gentamycin, followed by Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol (93.3%). The low susceptibility was found toward vancomycin (6.66%) followed by Cloxacillin (33.3%). The result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for enterotoxin genes,  ystA and ystB were investigated by PCR using a pair of primers for each. The results showed that ystA gene was absent in all nine investigated strains while ystB gene was present in four strain at a ratio of 44.4%.

SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM l. AND THEIR EFFECT ON SEIZURED CHICKENS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 85-105
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161494

     Cloves (Syzyguim Aromaticum L.) represent very interesting plant that has been used for many medicinal purposes such as treatment of convulsions due to its potent antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-convulsant effect of aqueous extract of Syzyguim Aromaticum L. (cloves) at the doses (100,200,300 mg/kg), sodium valproate (200mg/kg) act as reference standard on serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) concentration and cholinesterase (ChE) activity in serum and brain, electrolytes (sodium Na+, potassium K+, chloride Cl- and total calcium Ca+2), glucose and total protein in serum of chicks after induction of seizures by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), a plant used in traditional medicine as anticonvulsant. 72 chicks were recruited in this study were randomly divided into 6 groups of 12 each. Negative control received normal saline, positive control was given only PTZ, group III was given sodium valproate orally. The rest of three groups were given the extract at previous concentrations given through oral role. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of cloves revealed the presence of psychoactive compounds such as flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, tannins, and alkaloids. The present work suggest that the aqueous extract of  plant had increased level of T-AOC,GABA and ChE in serum of chicks, which were decreased due to the susceptibility to PTZ induced seizure, and decreased the concentration of Na+ and glucose in the serum. We reported that the cloves extract had quite low effect against PTZ induced seizure in spite of their positive effect on different biochemical parameters in serum; this may be due to the low concentration of doses used, which may be in adequate to produce obvious behavioral results.

EVALUATION ROLE OF THE AUTOGENOUS PERITONEUM AS A SCAFFOLDS ON THE HEALING OF ACHILLES TENDONS IN DOGS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 106-121
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161495

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the healing of experimentally severed Achilles tendons of the dogs repaired by Kessler suture pattern alone or with autologous peritoneal scaffold. A total of twelve healthy, neurologically and orthopedically local breed dogs were used in this study, which were randomly allocated into two equal groups (6 of each). The 1st group as a control, while the 2nd as a treated group. In both groups the Achilles tendon of one hind limb was completely severed transversely, in 1st group the tendon was repaired by Kessler suture pattern using silk No.3, while in the 2nd group a combination of Kessler suture and autogenous peritoneal scaffold was applied to reinforce the tendon repair. The site of surgery was evaluated clinically, while gross and histological study was performed at 15, 30 and 60 days post-operative days. Results was revealed that autologous peritoneum graft has a remarkable effects on Achilles tendon healing represented by improving fibroblastic proliferation, reduce adhesion, increase tendon strength and improve tendon function when compared with the control group. We concluded that peritoneal graft application has valuable and beneficial effects on treatment of ruptured Achilles tendon in dogs when utilizing it in conjunction with the traditional procedures.

RADIOLOGICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND BETWEEN ADULT MALE GAZELLE (SUBGUTTTUROSA) AND SHEEP(AWASSI).

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 122-133
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161496

Our radiological studyof the mandibular salivary gland was aimed to investigate the intraglandular ducts systemin both gazelle and sheep.  Eight mandibular  glands and three types of contras media were used.The  radiological parameters wereKv. 80 ,  time exposure  10 msec and focus film distance  80 cm . Our result showed that the mandibular salivary gland in gazelle made up of three lobes (dorsal ,middle and ventral lobes). The duct system appeared as highly branched and the main execratory duct was made of  the unitedof three lobar ducts . While in sheep, the gland made up of four lobes (cranial ,middle ,caudal and accessory) andthe  mainexceratory duct formed from united offour lobar ducts.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF USE SOMETREATMENTAL REGIMES TOTREAT POSTPARTUM FUNCTIONAL INFERTILITY OF COWS IN BASRA

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 134-155
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161497

Postpartum an estrus in cows is regarded as one of the most important causes of functional infertility after parturition during reproductive lifespan. Therefor the present study was conducted to induce fertile estrus in anestrus cows which suffered from inactive ovaries (IO) or persistent corpus luteum(PCL) after parturition.
The results of current study showed the efficiency of using GnRH or FSH as a hormonal medication to induce fertile estrus with pregnancy which reach 71.42 and 72.22 % respectively, as well as decreasing the length of days open (DO) to lesser than 150 day in both programs in 70.00 and 76.92 % respectively from induced estrus cows.
Also the results revealed that the role of PGF2α in induction of fertile estrus with 83.33% of pregnancy in cows which suffered from postpartum PCL and decrease the length of DO in 80.00% from induced estrus cows.
The present study improved the efficacy of uterine massage (UM) through rectal palpation to treat cases of PCL in postpartum anestrus cows with 71.42% of pregnancy, and its effect to decrease the length of DO in 60.00% from induced estrus cows.  

THE EFFECTS OF 4̄,4 ̄̄ -(4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDRO- [1,2,3-] SELENADIAZOLO [4,5E] PYRIDINE-4,6-DIYL) BIS(BENZENE-1,3-DIOL) ON FERTILITY, REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN FEMALE RATS TREATED WITH DIPYRONE.

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 156-173
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161515

The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of [ 4’,4” -(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro- [1,2,3-] selenadiazolo[4,5e] pyridine-4,6-diyl) bis(benzene-1,3-diol)] (T) on female fertility and reproductive hormones, in addition histopathological examination of ovaries in comparison with the effects of Metamizole or Dipyrone (Di). Four groups of mature female rats each group consist of ten healthy female rats. Three groups received T and /or Di dissolved in drinking water 2mL (DW), the forth group received 2 mL of (DW) for 20 days before mating and ten days after mating. The results indicated that there was a significant increase in the number of births of (T) group (13.70±3.34) compared to DW group (9.7±1.06). Also, significant decline in T&Di group to (6.91±0.32), with no pregnancies reported in Di treated group. The pregnancy percentage was in T&Di group basically decline to 40% compare with T and DW groups 100%. Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) level showed a significant elevation (p<0.05) in T group (5.19mIU/mL ±0.72), and T&Di (5.12 mIU/mL ±0.78) compared with DW (1.61mIU/mL±0.52), and Di (1.46 mIU/mL ±0.60) groups. LH concentration of T (1.88 mIU/mL ±0.48), and T&Di (1.67 mIU/mL ±0.41) groups LH values than in DW (1.75 mIU/mL ±0.67). Only in Di group (0.88 mIU/mL ±0.48) LH value reduced significantly (p<0.05) than in other test groups. T group (17.22 mIU/mL ±4.50) progesterone level; also T&Di group progesterone level (10.11 mIU/mL ±2.05) statistically important increase, while Di group there is essentially decreased (p<0.05) to (2.69 mIU/mL±0.89) compare to DW (6.31 mIU/mL ±1.41). Histopathological results showed that ovarian section of Di group disclosed large cystic corpus luteum CC.L, absence of Graafian Follicles and follicles at different stages of development.  T group section showed normal Graafian follicles and different follicles in developmental stages, as well as there were several persistence corpus luteum. Ovary of T&Di female rats relieves improvement of some Graafian follicles, Cystic corpus luteum (CC.L). Furthermore, there was some of clear C.L. It can be concluded that T compound had a Good effect on the level of reproductive hormones and increase fertility in female rats. While Di long term treatment had bad effects on female fertility, by affecting reproductive hormones levels and pathological change of ovaries.

ANATOMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THYMUS GLANDS IN BROILER CHICKS EMBRYO ( Gallus gallus domesticus).

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 174-182
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.161571

The study designed to investigates the anatomical and histological structures of the thymus gland in broiler chick embryos.  Ten healthy, normal embryos at 12th and 20th days old chick embryos was used, divided into five embryos for each age. The thymus was well developed at 12th day chick embryo, Anatomically consisted of 6-8 lobes which are similar in both sides .small, translucent bean shaped lobes that became pale in color at 20th day old embryo, these lobes located in both sides of the neck, positioned parallel to the jugular vein and vagus nerve.  
            Histological structures of thymus gland were composed of capsule, cortex and medulla.  At 12th day old of chick embryo the thymus was surrounded by a thin connective tissue capsule, which septa extends into the gland stroma to form a lobulation for each lobe, the cortex and medulla was not differentiated at this age. At 20th day old chicks embryo, the lobules start to recognize and composed of external dark stained cortex with a high population of lymphocytes and internal light stained medulla with less abundant of lymphocytes , reticular fiber and epithelial reticular cells with the appearance of Hassall's corpuscles.

COMPARATIVE RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INTRAGLANDULAR DUCTS SYSTEM OF PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND OF ADULT MALE INDIGENOUS GAZELLE(SUBGUTTTUROSA) AND SHEEP(AWASSI).

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 183-194
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162850

The present study was aimed to investigate the intraglandular duct system pattern in a parotid salivary gland in both gazelle and sheep. Eight parotid glands were used, three types of contras media were used, and some radiological parameters Kv. 80, time exposure  10 msec with focus film distance  80 cm. The radiological results showed that the parotid salivary gland in gazelle made up of five lobes, the intraglandular duct system appear as highly branched, and the main execratory duct formed inside the gland by union of five lobar ducts, while in sheep the gland appear formed from three-lobe and main duct formed from three lobar ducts inside the gland .

THE EFFECT OF CADMIUM AND LEAD ELEMENTS ON THE MORTALITY OF CULEXQUINQUEFASCIATUS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 195-207
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162851

Present study was carried to evaluate the toxicity of the Pb and Cd elements on the larvae of Culexquinquefasciatus. In the laboratory 5 concentrations of lead nitrate and cadmium nitrate , namely 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg\l and 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg\l of Pb and Cd respectively in each concentration 10 larvae were introduce beside there was a control (0mg/l).
Statically analysis results declare that 1st and 2nd instars effected significantly in comparison with the control .Mortality percentage reached 28, 38.7, 48, 58, and 73.5 % in concentration 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg\l respectively of lead nitrate. On the other hand, cadmium nitrate mortality percentage reached 44, 55, 65, 74.5, and 79.5 % in concentration 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg\l respectively.
Also, LC50 was going higher as the larva going older, measured 14.7, 16.9 for 1st and 2ndinstars and 22.3 and 41.4 for 3rd and 4th instars. On the other hand, cadmium nitrate appeared more effect than Leadnitrate with LC50  of 0.9, 1.05, 1.3, and 1.8 mg\l for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars respectively.

THE ROLE OF GENISTEIN AND FISH OIL IN MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL DISORDERS OF OSTEOCLASTOGENESIS AS A RISK FACTOR FOR OSTEOPOROSIS INDUCED BY ANASTROZOLE IN LABORATORY RATS (Rattus norvegicus)

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 208-223
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162852

In order to determine the toxic effects of anastrazol and its relationship to the incidence of osteoporosis, this study was conducted (56 females laboratory rats ) aged (3-4 month) divided into (7 groups) each group composed 8 female rats as follows: The first group was treated with a anastrazol (0.02 mg/1 kg body weight) for a 60 days. The second group was treated with anstrazol (0.02 mg/1 kg body weight) and fish oil (3750 mg/1 kg of body weight) for 60 days. The third group was treated with anstrazol (0.02 mg/1 kg body weight), and phytoestrogen (genstien) (20 mg/1 kg of body weight) for 60 days. The fourth group was treated with anstrazol (0.02 mg/1 kg body weight) , fish oil (3750 mg/1 kg of body weight)  and phytoestrogen (genstien) (20 mg/1 kg of body weight) for a 60 Day. The fifth group is treated with a drug phytoestrogen (genstien) (20 mg/1 kg of body weight) for a 60-day. The sixth group were treated with fish oil (3750 mg/1 kg of body weight) for a 60-day. The seventh group is a group control are not treated by any drugs for a 60 days.
The biochemical results showed a significant decline in value of estrogen in the GI (43.925±2.895) compared with GII, GIII and GIV while significant improvement observed in the estrogen level of GII, GIII and GIV respectively (70.308±2.140), (67.42±3.812) and (74.15± 3.603) compared with the first group (43.925±2.895). Also  the GIV showed the optimal improvement in estrogen level (74.15±3.603), as well, the biochemical results showed significant increase in the level of the alkaline phosphatase in the GI which showed (190.02±3.98) compared with GII, GIII and GIV while showed significant improvement of alkaline phosphatase values in the GII, GIII and GIV respectively (180.57±1. 89), (181.37±5. 03), (176. 8±2, 41).In Real-Time PCR RANK in the first group showed up-regulation (12.157±1.59) compared with the second, third and fourth groups (5.50±90.601), (6.903±0.130) and (3.018±0.027) respectively. The results also showed an up-regulation RANKL in Group I (8.458±0.766) compared with the second, third and fourth groups respectively (6.071±0.53), (4.970±0.228) and (3.398±0.114). While the results showed an up-regulation OPG in the second, third and fourth respectively (1.924±0.08), (1.014±0.064) and (5.567±1.419) compared in the first group (0.009±0.0076).We concluded that the derivatives like genestein and fish oil lead to ameliorate the toxic effect of anastrazole, also these derivatives may minimized the risk of osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency

ABILITY OF Leishmania donovani TO CONGENITAL TRANSMISSION IN EXPERIMENTAL BALB/C MICE

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 224-235
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162853

The aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of the transmission of Leishmania donovani parasite from pregnant mothers to their embryos in experimental BALB/c mice. After 5 days of copulation males with females,females were injected with 1012 parasite/ml of promastigote stage through the tail vein, which is grown in NNN-medium.
This study demonstrated parasite ability to congenital transmission from mothers to their embryos by placenta through the appearance of amastigote in tissue sections of liver and bone marrow of infected mice fetusescompared with uninfected fetuses.
I

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PLATELETE RICH PLASMA FOR TREATMENT OF INDUCED CUTANEOUS ULCER IN DIABETIC RABBITS INDUCED BY STREPTOZOTOCIN

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 236-248
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162854

The present study investigates the effect of platelets rich plasma (PRP) on the healing of skin ulcers in rabbits in which diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced using Streptozotocin. The study was applied on 12 adult rabbits of both sexes with a mean weight of 1000-1500 g. They were divided randomly into two equal groups (six rabbits per group). DM was induced in two groups by injected Streptozotosin 65 mg / kg B.W IV. Ulcers were made in 3 cm length and 2 cm width in all rabbits in the gluteal region under the general Anesthesia by mixture of xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride in sterile conditions. The first group was used as control; the second group was treated with platelets rich plasma on the site of ulcers. The first group in the 7 days, showed large ulcers and pus; in the 14 days, were ulcers continued with thickened epidermal. The second group, in the 7days, showed skin ulcers with dermal thickening and a beginning of skin formation. In the 14th days, the treated group showed small ulcer remaining with dermal fibrosis.ELISA results have been shown the effect of platelets rich plasma on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) concentration in the blood after 10 days of skin lesions inducing. The natural concentration of TNFα is 6.4 pg/ml in range (4.2-7.9) pg/ml. The first group had a concentration below 5.3 pg/ml, due to the DM. The second group was highly concentrated in 10.4 pg/ml. The results of the histopathological and ELISA confirmed that there are marked healing and elevating TNFα concentration in the treated group.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Staphylococcus aureus FROM TICKS ON THE CATTLE IN BASRA CITY

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 249-256
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162855

Ticks are an important external parasite have a mechanical affect through an imbibing blood of the host and transferring a pathogenic bacteria or a virus. The present  study was focusing on the isolation of bacteria from the ticks parasitized cattle in north of Basra city,This study was conducted in north of Basrah (Qurna district) from February to July 2017Atotal number of 80cattle parasitized with ticks were samplesIsolated ticks were identified as Hyalomma to recognize what types of bacteria might be existed in these ticks, some of the cultures and biochemical tests were used. As a consequence, Staphylococcus aureus being identified in 14 of cattle sampled that infected with ticks. Regarded to present study, Staphylococcus aureusis one of the most pathogenic bacteria that can have an  impact on an animal health production and  this study that conducted from little studies in Iraq especially in Basrah about diagnosis of bacterial infection from Ticks.
 

EFFECT OF FEEDING OF HEAD LETTUCE AND ALFALFA ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN ADULT MALE RABBITS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 257-267
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162856

The present objective was done for investigate the ameliorative feeding effect of Lactuca sativa and alfalfa on growth performance and reproductive parameters (concentration of hormones, characteristic of sperm epididymal in adult male rabbits). Twelve adult male rabbits were divided randomly in to two groups. Control group (G1) animals feeding on alfalfa (1kg/day/animal) for 6 weeks. Group Two (G2) this group feeding on head lettuce (1kg/day/animal) for 6 weeks. The result revealed significantly increase in serum testosterone, LH and FSH concentration and significantly differences were observed in sperm concentration, viability, abnormality and decrease significantly in motility of sperm in group feeding  on head lettuce compared to the group feeding on alfalfa.

ASSOCIATION OF POLYMORPHISMS IN SLC11A1 GENE WITH AUTOIMMUNITY CAUSED BY Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis(MAP) IN CATTLE.

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 268-282
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162857

Johne's disease is one of the main causes of economic losses in ruminants and a major health hazard in the developed and developing developed countries.In this study, PCR detection of insertion sequences IS900 of MAP in the buffy coat of cows (n = 81), of this 29 (35.8%) cow showed positive results. By Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP),two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SLC11A1 gene were tested for finding their association with susceptibility to bovine Johens disease in Iraqi cattle. A total of 50 cows were tested, theirresult revealedthat at rs109453173 locus twoelectromorph‘CC’ (374 bp) and ‘CG’ (374, 293 and 81 bp).The rs109915208 locus also showed two electromorph, ‘TT (344bp) and ‘CT’ (344, 215 and 129 bp) . The differences in the electromorph between IS900 positive and negative cows were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.0031). No significant difference in these electromorph at SNP locus rs109915208 between IS900 positive and negative cows. Out of two SNPs from SLC11A1 gene, rs109453173 had a significant association with the susceptibility to Johne's disease. The CC’ electromorph observed at rs109453173 locus showed a significant association with the susceptibility to bovine paratuberculosis in cows. The OR of ‘CC’  in‘IS900  positive versusIS900 negative cattle was7.8750, suggesting that cows having ‘CC’ electromorph were susceptible to Johne's disease compared to ‘CG’ electromorph .
 

EFFECT OF (MYCOFIX® PLUS) AND AFLATOXIN ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 283-287
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2019.162862

AN experiment conducted at the department of veterinary public health, college of veterinary medicine, Mosul-Iraq,  during September to October 2009 to study the effect of Mycofix ® plus (MY)  on broiler health performance during aflatoxicosis   Eighty, one- day- old commercial male broiler chicks (Ross 308), were distributed to 4 dietary treatment groups with 2 replicates of 10 chicks each. Birds were reared for 35 days. All birds were fed on diet with or without aflatoxin (AF), and with or without (MY) in feed. The treatment groups were as follow: G1 (0 part per million (ppm) AF without MY); g2 (2.5 ppm AF without MY ); g3 (0 ppm AF & 0.25% MY ); G4 (2.5 ppm AF & 0.25 % MY ). Body weights and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 35 of bird’s age, five birds were randomly selected from each group for estimation of WBCs, RBCs, HB and ESR; glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and triglycerides; serum levels of AST,ALT and ALP enzymes; antibody titers and CV% against Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine;  relative weights of  bursa of Fabricious , thymus, spleen, proventriculus, gizzard, kidney, liver, heart and pancreas, in addition to recording liver lesions. Results show that MY was effective in ameliorating the negative effect of AF on growth performance (body weight gain ,feed consumption and feed conversion ratio); on  relative weights of affected internal body organs and  the score lesion of liver; on blood picture (WCS, HB and  glucose); serum enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP); antibody titer and CV%  against ND vaccine in comparison to AF contaminated feed and control groups.
    

TOXICO-PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF GENTAMICIN BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION IN EXPERIMENTAL RABBITS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2018.160308

     In the current study, 16 rabbits was divided into two groups.  Animals of Group I (untreated control) were maintained without any treatment. Group 2 animals (treated group), the gentamicin were injected in thigh muscle /I.M. at 25 mg/kg body weight twice a day (morning and evening) for two months. During the experimental period anorexia, emaciation, and death some animals were seen. Histopathological examination showed that there was proliferated of cortical renal tubules cells and degeneration with necrosis of some them as well as congestion of sinusoid in liver and proliferation of bile duct. There was also vacuolated and congestion of myocardial tissue.  In conclusion, the administration of gentamycin for a long time could serve as a source of harm to animal organs such as kidney, liver, bile duct, and heart

MAGNESIUM SULFATE, KETOROLAC, PROPOFOL, KETAMINE, AND XYLAZINE ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL IN RABBITS

Ahmed A. AL- Mramudhi; haier A. Abid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 70-81
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2014.88127

The study aimed to evaluate the combination of Magnesium sulfate (Mg), ketorolac (Kr), Propofol (P), Ketamine (K), and Xylazine(X) anesthetic protocol in anesthesia and analgesia of rabbits. Twenty healthy male rabbits, weighing (1.300 0.200 kg) were used in the study. All rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups of five rabbits injected with the different protocols (G1(p10k50mg50 ), G2(p10k50kr10 ), G3(p10 k50 kr10mg50 ), and G4(p10 k50 kr10mg50x5)) of anesthesia intravenously in the marginal ear vein. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) were taken before giving the drugs (Time 0 (control reading)), and then after 5,10,15,20,30,45,60,and 75 minutes of giving anesthesia. The induction time, duration of anesthesia, degree of analgesia, muscle relaxation and recovery time were recorded also.
The anesthetic protocol in G3 (p10 k50 kr10mg50) is seen suitable for short operations (gives 24.2 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and the anesthetic protocol in G4 (p10 k50 kr10mg50x5) is seen suitable for long operations (gives 43.5 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and no signs of pain with the intravenously injection of propofol.

STAINING TECHNIQUE FOR HELMINTH PARASITES BY USE RED BEET ( BETA VULGARIS L.) EXTRACT

Mohanad . F. A.Al-Amura

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 283-292
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2012.54855

Experimentally red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) extract had been used to stain different types of parasites Lecithochirium acutum (Trematoda), Taenia spp.Dipylidium caninum and cysticercus cyst for Taenia spp. (Cestoda), Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara canis (Nematoda) and Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis (Acanthocephala). Stained helminthes were acquired a good pigmentation with distinction their internal structure, fish's Trematoda Lecithochirium acutum appear well –defined of its internal structure, the oral and ventral sucker, cirrus sac, uterus, testes, ovary and vitallaria were appeared pink in color. The whole of mature and gravid segments of Taenia spp. were acquired the yellow to brown colour in both cirrus sac and vas deference besides differentiation of eggs in gravid segment, Scolex of Taenia spp. get brown in color.in addition segment of Dipylidiun caninum acquired yellow colour. The cysticercus cyst was taken pink in color with distinguish of its hooks, while both Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis and Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis were appear pink to red in colour

TENUICOLLOSIS IN SLAUGHTERED SHEEP AT DUHOK ABATTOIR- KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ

Nacheervan.M.Ghaffar

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-24
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2011.55033

A study on the prevalence and monthly incidence of Cysticercus tenuicollis metacestodes of sheep were carried out in Duhok abattoir(north of Iraq) .The work was conducted during the period from October.2008- to September.2009 by weekly regular visits to the slaughterhouse. All slaughtered animals were apparently healthy, were of local breed, of both sexes originated from some areas with non –descriptive features. Visual inspection of the lesion and traditional procedure were followed.Age,sex and different locations of cysts were widely investigated in each species and then tabulated . Out of 4716 sheep examined, only 31(0.7%) of sheep had cysts, with absence of these cysts in both goats and cattle. However, the vesicles were only present in female sheep. The highest infection rate was found in sheep older than 2 years(1.7%),while the lowest was in sheep younger than one year(0.1%).The heaviest incidence was observed in Febrewery,2009(1.4%)and the lowest was in Jun and July(0.3%). The commonest locations of the cysts were in the mesentery (29%) followed by the uterus (16%) with few cases in other visceral organs.

RETENTION OF FETAL MEMBRANES IN IRAQI BUFFALOES, CLINICAL &THERAPEUTICAL STUDY

Al-Zahid; Al-Hamedawi; T.M. And Al-Yasiri; E.A

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 167-172
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2012.68928

This study was conducted on 74 Iraqi buffaloes suffered from retention of fetal membranes (RFM) after 8-12 hrs in Karbala province from 2010-2011, there were ranged from 3-7 years old. The affected animals were divided into four groups randomly according to the treatment regime .1st group (18 buffaloes) treated manually ,2nd group (22buffaloes) treated with oxytocin hormone 100 IU(10ml/IM) .While the 3rd group (21 buffaloes) was treated with a single dose of estrumate 750μg (3ml /IM) .The 4th group (13 buffaloes) was treated with a single dose of estradiol benzoate (15mg/IM) and all groups were treated with a single dose of oxytetracycline 20% (20ml/IM).The response for different treatment regimes were 100% ,77% ,76.19% and 76.92% for groups respectively. The manual removal treatment gives a superior significant difference (P<0.01) from other hormonal treatments and the second group recorded a better percentage of drops of fetal membranes compared with the 3rd and 4th group. The manually treated animals were superior to other group related to first postpartum estrus, the number of services per conception and the days open measurements. We concluded that the manual treatment still an important method of treatment, this fact depends on the reproductive parameters. Also we concluded that the hormonal treatment is a good method and gives appositive result reaches to 80% response.
INTRODUCTION

MAGNESIUM SULFATE, KETOROLAC, PROPOFOL, KETAMINE, AND XYLAZINE ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL IN RABBITS

Ahmed A. AL- Mramudhi; haier A. Abid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 70-81
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2014.88127

The study aimed to evaluate the combination of Magnesium sulfate (Mg), ketorolac (Kr), Propofol (P), Ketamine (K), and Xylazine(X) anesthetic protocol in anesthesia and analgesia of rabbits. Twenty healthy male rabbits, weighing (1.300 0.200 kg) were used in the study. All rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups of five rabbits injected with the different protocols (G1(p10k50mg50 ), G2(p10k50kr10 ), G3(p10 k50 kr10mg50 ), and G4(p10 k50 kr10mg50x5)) of anesthesia intravenously in the marginal ear vein. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) were taken before giving the drugs (Time 0 (control reading)), and then after 5,10,15,20,30,45,60,and 75 minutes of giving anesthesia. The induction time, duration of anesthesia, degree of analgesia, muscle relaxation and recovery time were recorded also.
The anesthetic protocol in G3 (p10 k50 kr10mg50) is seen suitable for short operations (gives 24.2 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and the anesthetic protocol in G4 (p10 k50 kr10mg50x5) is seen suitable for long operations (gives 43.5 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and no signs of pain with the intravenously injection of propofol.

SILICON POLYMER FOR CAST OF PARANASAL SINUSES OF IRAQI LOCAL GOAT (Capra hircus)

Alaa A.Sawad; Dhuha Adel Kareem

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 111-118
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2016.124260

The present work is designed to study the anatomical features of the paranasal sinus in local goat(Capra hircus) to distinguish and describe the types of the paranasal sinuses. Five heads of local goat were collected are used in this study , Used of silicone casts and imaging in order to study the shape, position of sinuses . The study revealed that the paranasal sinuses are ventilated spaces connected to the nasal cavity. They develop as blind ending pouches between the lamina of the bones of the skull or are a series of cavities arranged one after another like pyramidal shapes consists of five sinuses. which cavities are frontal , maxillary, lacrimal, palatine, conchal sinuses with absence of sphenoid sinus . The frontal sinus lies above the eyes (above the orbits) and have two types larger lateral and smaller medial, Maxillary sinus is large and located under the cheeks, while the lacrimal sinus is very small located in the dorsal part of the lacrimal bone . The palatine sinus is located in the hard palate. There are three conchal sinuses located inside three conchae of nasal cavity. The dorsal, ventral ,middle conchal sinuses located inside dorsal ,ventral ,middle nasal concha respectively , the dorsal conchal sinus longer than ventral and middle conchal sinuses. The aim of study to identify the morphological features of the paranasal sinuses and relation between them and with other regions. in the Iraqi local goat because veterinary importance and its effect on public health.
INTRODUCTION
Goats are a popular large animal model because they can be easily obtained and bred. Over the past decades, they have been used to study immunoserology, microbiology, biological products, gene transfer and tissue-engineering repair of bony defects and for teaching and biomedical research and for surgical training.( 1, 2).
The paranasal sinuses of goat are a series of cavities arranged one after another. These cavities are frontal , maxillary, lacrimal,palatine, conchal sinuses. The Frontal sinus, Consists of spaces within the bones between the cranial cavity and the nasal cavity divided into two parts, smaller medially and larger laterally ,while the Maxillary sinus, are the largest sinus is divided by the infraorbital canal into medial and lateral parts. The lateral partion is larger and extends caudally into the lacrimal bulla; while the medial portion located medial to the infraorbital canal , is continuous with the palatine sinus ;Lacrimal sinus are relatively small and lies near the frontolacrimal junction, The Palatine sinus Communicate with the maxillary sinus through a wide maxillopalatine opening and three conchal sinuses (dorsal, middle, ventral) formed by concha of nasal cavity ( 3,5).
This sinuses are cavities lies in the interior at some bones of the skull .the walls of the sinuses are composed of compact bone and are lined by a muco- periosteum (muco-endosteum) which is continuous with the nasal cavity( 3,8).
Anatomical features of the paranasal sinuses and relation between them and with other regions in the Iraqi local goat were aimed in this study.

INVESTIGATION OF PHYLOGENIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN DIFFERENT ANIMALS IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Ibrahim H. Madhloom; Rasha M. Othman

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 193-209
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2017.143544

E.colican be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2
and D, which can be divided into seven and then into subgroups: A0, A1, B1, B22, B23,
D1, and D2, in addition group B1can be divided into subgroups B11 and B12, using
multiplex PCR according to the presence/absence or combinationof the three phylogeny
genetic markers chuA, yjaA and DNA fragment TspE4.C2.In the currentstudy atotal of
30E. coli isolates were obtained from clinical and subclinical samples from mastitis in
cows, sheeps and goats by standard bacteriological methods. Results found that the most
isolates of E. coli belong to the phylogeny groups A and B1. Group Aincluded (14
isolates, 46.7%) belonged to subgroup A0 about (6 isolates, 20.0%), and (8 isolates,
26.7%) to A1 subgroup. On the other hand results showed group B1 composed (14
isolates, 46.7%). Group B1 can be also classified into subgroups B11 included (8 isolates,
26.7%) and B12 about (6 isolates, 20.0%). In addition our results showed (1 isolate,
3.3%), assigned to B2 belonged to subgroup B23 and (1 isolate, 3.3%), fitted in D
belonged to subgroup D1. No isolates were found to belong to subgroups B22 and D2.
Phylogeny pedigree was done according to the data recovered previously. This study
explains that the distributions of E. coli isolates in phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and
D) varied depending on the climatic zone and environmental factors such as dietary,
climatic conditions and geographic.

RETENTION OF FETAL MEMBRANES IN IRAQI BUFFALOES, CLINICAL &THERAPEUTICAL STUDY

Al-Zahid; Al-Hamedawi; T.M. And Al-Yasiri; E.A

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 167-172
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2012.68928

This study was conducted on 74 Iraqi buffaloes suffered from retention of fetal membranes (RFM) after 8-12 hrs in Karbala province from 2010-2011, there were ranged from 3-7 years old. The affected animals were divided into four groups randomly according to the treatment regime .1st group (18 buffaloes) treated manually ,2nd group (22buffaloes) treated with oxytocin hormone 100 IU(10ml/IM) .While the 3rd group (21 buffaloes) was treated with a single dose of estrumate 750μg (3ml /IM) .The 4th group (13 buffaloes) was treated with a single dose of estradiol benzoate (15mg/IM) and all groups were treated with a single dose of oxytetracycline 20% (20ml/IM).The response for different treatment regimes were 100% ,77% ,76.19% and 76.92% for groups respectively. The manual removal treatment gives a superior significant difference (P<0.01) from other hormonal treatments and the second group recorded a better percentage of drops of fetal membranes compared with the 3rd and 4th group. The manually treated animals were superior to other group related to first postpartum estrus, the number of services per conception and the days open measurements. We concluded that the manual treatment still an important method of treatment, this fact depends on the reproductive parameters. Also we concluded that the hormonal treatment is a good method and gives appositive result reaches to 80% response.
INTRODUCTION

ANTIMICROBIAL INFLUNCES OF ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTED FROM SOME PLANTS FORMULATIONS ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

Hazim; S. Jabar; Rana; A. Faaz

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 94-110
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56603

Antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests serve as standard assays for measuring the activity of compounds against pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, some plant-derived proprietary essential oil blends (Olea europaea , Pimpinella anisum L. , Coriandrum sativum , Matricaria chamomilla L. , Borago officinalis , Cimum basilicum L. , Cuminum cyminum , Thymus vulgaris thymol , Menta xpiperita L. , Rosmarinas officinalis comphora) were tested for their antibacterial activity against five common strains of pathogenic bacteria using disk susceptibility tests. A formulation intended for topical use (Essential Oil Formulation 1) (EOF1) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus as evidenced by zone inhibition diameter measurements when compared to those reported for standard antibiotics. EOF 1 exhibited no activity against Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The second formulation (Essential Oil Formulation 2) (EOF2), intended for inhalation use, inhibited the growth of all five test bacteria strains with zone inhibition diameters two to three times greater than those reported for standard antibiotics. The growth of all five bacteria strains was inhibited when a cotton swab impregnated with EOF 2 was suspended above the bacterial lawn, indicating a true vapor or fume effect by this formulation.

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