Print ISSN: 1813-8497

Online ISSN: 2410-8456

Volume 6, Issue 2

Volume 6, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2007, Page 1-162


BACTERIAL QUALITY OF BEEF CARCASSES AND SANITARY CONDITION OF BUTCHER’S SHOPS IN BASRAH CITY

Ala AL-Deen H. Jawad; Alaa T. Abdul Alwahid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55753

The microbial quality of beef carcasses, sanitary conditions in butchers’ shops and possibility of the presence of human pathogens associated with food poisoning outbreaks such as salmonella and staphylococci was investigated in 160 samples of beef carcasses, cutting blocks, knives, workers’ hands and air (32 samples for each) during January and ended in June. All samples examined bacteriologically for aerobic plate count, total coliform count, Staphylococcus aureus count and an attempt was made for isolation and identification Salmonella spp.
This study have shown that there was a gradual increment in the count of all microorganisms starting in January and ending with June, the minimum mean of aerobic plate count of beef carcasses was 27.32x104 cfu/cm2 in January where as the maximum mean was 79.94x104 cfu/cm2 in June, the minimum mean of total coliform count was 0.67x103 cfu/cm2 in January and the maximum mean was 1.16x103 cfu/cm2 in June. The minimum mean of Staphylococcus aureus count was 7.36x102 cfu/cm2 in January whereas the maximum mean was 27.11x102 cfu/cm2 in June.
The same results were observed in the cutting blocks, knives, and workers’ hands concerning the minimum and maximum mean count of the studied bacteria.
Salmonella could not be isolated from any examined samples and the percentage of Coagulase positive Staph. aureus which were isolated from beef carcasses, cutting blocks, knives and workers’ hands samples was 100%.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE METHODS OF TONSILLECTOMY IN DOGS

MJ Eesa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 18-24
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55761

Eleven dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: group one, in which the tonsil glands were ligated and then resected by scalpel; group two, the tonsils resected by electrocautery; group three; the tonsils were excised by electrocautery with help of an laparoscope. The clinical findings, after two days of operation, at the excision sites appeared redness in color and slight swelling. These signs disappeared at 4-6 postoperative days in group one, while in second and third groups, it extend for 5 - 7 days. Healing of surgical sites occurred 10-12 days after operation in the first group, while in second and third groups, healing occurred in 11-14 days, respectively. The modified use of a rigid laparoscopic toll in the third group for tonsillectomy, was found to be easy for application of the method and given good results.

SURGICAL TREATMENT OF UPWARD PATELLAR FIXATION OF IN BUFFALOES OF BASRAH PROVINCE

Abdalbari A. alfars

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 25-29
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55765

A study was conducted on 65 clinical cases of upward fixation of patella of she buffaloes treated during the last years(2000 - 2006). The occurrence of the disease with respect to species and season were documented
Buffaloes suffering from jerky movement during flexion to complete immobilization of the joint. Since the animal fixes its( limb in extension ) while the patella glides up over the trochela. All Buffaloes were affected with upward fixation of the patella in one back leg.

After medial patellar desmotomy, buffaloes become health sound and returned in stride normal.
The purpose of this study was to treat and report for the first in literature of upward fixation in buffaloes in Basra provinces.
Alternatively tying the animals to a wheel of a bullock cart also resulted in good control of animals under field conditions.

A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA & Giardia Lamblia INFECTION

Ayad Kassim AL-Maki; Zuhair AL-Shaheen; Kassim hussein K

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 30-36
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55769

Stool samples were collected from 7537 persons attending Qurna hospital in Basrah from the period of Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2005 were examined and studied to define the role of intestinal protozoal infections ( Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia and mixed infection ) in rural region (Qurna) and effect of risk factors of age and sex related to these parasites.
A high percentage of patient (29.2%) had infection with Entamoeba histolytica followed by (15.0%) infected with Giardia lamblia.
The influences of age on infection with Entamoeba histolytica was studied, a higher incidence is found at >45yr. (35.7%) and also at (1-14)yr. age groups (31.9%).whereas the high percentage in Giardia lamblia infection (21.5%) was found within the age group (30-45)yr.
Significant difference (p<0.05) was seen in the rate of infection with Entamoeba histolytica between males (33.9%) and females (26.7%) and No significant difference (p<0.05) have been found in the infection rate in Giardia lamblia (16.4%) were male and (14.7%) were females and mixed infection (11.2%) were males and (10.7%) were females.

THE CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF XYLAZINE IN PREGNANT BUFFALOEs AND CATTLE

M. J. Eesa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 37-41
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55771

The object of this study was to investigate the effect of xylazine administration at dose of (0.05 mg/kg BW) intravenously in late pregnancy of buffaloes and cattle. Under xylazine as sedation and analgesia, accompanied with local anesthesia, rumenatomy were implemented on three hundred seventy two buffaloes and sixty four cattle. Eighty two and thirty five of these buffaloes and cattle were in late pregnancy respectively. The results of this study revealed that xylazine did not effect the buffaloes in late stage of pregnancy, but it cause abortion in late pregnancy in cattle at a percentage of 3.65%. Also there was individual variation of response to xylazine in both buffaloes and cattle. The latter appeared to be more sensitive to xylazine than buffaloes

EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE LEAVES ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF LOCAL ADULT MALE RABBITS

AL-Saeed; Nawras A. Alwan; M.H; Jassim M.A.Al-Kalby

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 42-55
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55773

The twenty adult local male rabbits of mean body weight of 1 kgm and mean age of 6 months were randomly allocated into two groups of ten animals, each group was fed during the period of experiment on a standard diet . The first group was regarded as control and received 3ml of physiological saline orally for a month. The second group was drenched ethanolic extract of Taraxacum officinale (500 mg/kg/day) for one month . Those male were joined with females after treatment for a week to study the effect on fertility and reproductive efficiency. The following results were obtained:
The ethanolic extract of Taraxacum officinale caused highly significant increase (p<0.01) in AST and significant decrease (P<0.05) in ALT of intact treated male rabbits.The ethanolic extract has a significant decrease in the testicular weight, seminiferous tubules diameter and decrease in sperm count.The prolonged drenching of T.officinale extract caused infertility. Prolonged drenching of T.officinale extract showed clear histological changes on all organs studied (pituitary,thyroid glands and testes) as compared with control

SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF GARLIC ON BROILER CHICKEN

Ala Al Deen H. Jawad

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 56-63
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55779

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of adding raw garlic in the diets on certain hematological and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Total of (40) birds (one day old) were used for this study. The birds divided randomly and equally into (4) treatment groups which fed on one of the following for 56 days: group (1) was fed on 10% raw garlic with basal diet, group (2) was fed on 5% raw garlic with basal diet, group (3) fed on basal diet and antibiotic (Ampicillin) which was added to the drinking water and group (4) fed on basal diet only (control group)
The results showed that there were no significant alteration in PCV and RBCs in the group which fed on 10% raw garlic compared with the control one, however these group showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in HbC, MCV, MCHC and MCH. The addition of 5% raw garlic to the diet of bird caused significant (p<0.01) reduction in MCH and MCV only where as other haematological parameters (PCV, RBCs count, HbC and MCHC) have not affected significantly compared with the control group. The group which received antibiotic showed significant reduction (p<0.01) in HbC and MCHC. On the other hand, all treatment groups have not altered the total WBC and differential leucocytic counts. The coagulation time was prolonged significantly in groups that fed on both levels of garlic. The biochemical analysis of the serum has not any significant changes in serum total protein and glucose levels in all treatment groups. However, the serum cholesterol levels of birds fed on both levels of garlic (10% and/or 5%) reduced significantly (p<0.01) as compared with the control group

IMMUNIZATION TRIAL OF SHEEP AGAINST HYDATID CYST INFECTION

Esraa Abdul Wadood

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 64-69
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55780

This study was conducted to evaluate the role of vaccination trial of sheep with different types of hydatid cyst antigens (hydatid cyst fluid, protoscolecses and laminated layer ).in the prevention and control of hydatid cyst infection .The animals in all groups received Echinococcus granulosus egg as challenge after the third injection of antigens .
Serum antibody responded of vaccinated animals with different antigens studied during the period of study , the results revealed that ,the titer of antibodydepend on indirect heamagglutination test after 21 days and 6 months were 640 and 320 respectively when hydatid cyst fluid antigen was used Also it was 320 and 160 respectively when protoscolisces and laminated layer antigen was used .
The animals observed over a year after vaccination and the observation show reduction in the hydatid cyst growth in the vaccinated groups, whears the control group show growth of small cyst in the liver and lung.

EVALUATION OF LACTOBACILLUS SALIVARUS AS

Taher A Fahad; Rahman Kadhum Muhsen; Janan Abdul-Aziz Bannai

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 70-77
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.55783

Lactobacillus salivarus has been studied extensively as a probiotic in human . However the ability of an organism to survive passage through the intestinal tract and exert beneficial effects can not be directly extrapolated between species. This study evaluated the ability of L.salivarus to survive gastrointestinal transit in dogs and assessed whether oral administration of L.salivarus is safe in order to determine whether studies evaluating the efficacy of L.salivarus in the treatment of canine disease are indicated. Dogs were divided into 5 groups receiving doses of 0 (control group n=8),1 109 (group 1, n=8), 1 1010 ( group2 ,n=8) , 5 1010 (group3, n=8) and 5 1011 (group 4,n=8) colony forming unite per day orally for 5 days.
L.salivarus was detected in the feces of 3/8 dogs in group 1 and 2, 4/8 dogs in group 3; 8/8 dogs in group 4 and 0/8 dogs in control group. Fecal colonization was significantly greater in group 4 than in any other groups (P> 0.01). Differences between groups 1,2 and 3 were not significant. No adverse effects were noted. Fecal colonization of L.salivarus in dogs is somewhat variable; however clinical studies are indicated to evaluated this organism in the treatment and prevention of canine disease.

EFFECT OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC LEAD NITRATE EXPOSURE ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE

Shereen Jawad Kadhim Al-Ali; Asia Fadel Abdula

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 78-88
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56601

The research include the study of the effect of lead in the form of lead nitrate on some hematological parameters (Hb concentration, total WBC count , differential WBC count) and liver enzymes, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) or (ALT) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) or (AST) levels during the acute and chronic exposure in experimental mice , the research performed by feeding the mice to two different concentration of lead nitrate 50 ppm/kg and 100 ppm/kg for two exposure periods the acute (10days) and chronic (20 days) . the results showed that the lead in 50 ppm/kg con. in chronic period showed much less decrease in hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils percentage ( 6.9 g/100ml , 12.25% respectively) than in the acute period (9 g/100ml , 18.5% respectively) and an increase in total WBCs count, basophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes percentage (5.01×103,2.25% , 4% and 65.25% respectively) much than in the acute period( 3.11×103 , 0.75% , 0.75% , 63.25% respectively) , AST level increase significantly in the acute period of 100 ppm/kg exposure where as ALT level increase significantly in the acute period of 50 ppm/kg exposure , we also found that females were more hematologically affected with lead compared with males while the AST and ALT levels were high in males than females for both periods .

EFFECT OF BENZIMIDAZOL ON THE VIABILITY DEVELOPMENT AND SIZES OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS PROTOSCOLICIES IN MICE

Abdul jabber Rasmi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 88-93
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56602

This study was designed on to show the effect of albendazol and mebendazol alon and their combination on surviral , development and size of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolicies of (10 mg/ml) intraperitoneal in mice. The study show that the mebendazol and combination drugs were greater than the albendzol during on the first four days nor effect on the five day in vivo intraperitoneal administration of combination drugs were greater than albendazol and mebendazol alone on the development and size of cysts which about (5.2±2.17) , (7.0±1.0) , (10.0±3.16) for the development and (1.13±0.38) , (1.18±0.54) , (1.20±0.49) for the ysts size.

ANTIMICROBIAL INFLUNCES OF ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTED FROM SOME PLANTS FORMULATIONS ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

Hazim; S. Jabar; Rana; A. Faaz

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 94-110
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56603

Antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests serve as standard assays for measuring the activity of compounds against pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, some plant-derived proprietary essential oil blends (Olea europaea , Pimpinella anisum L. , Coriandrum sativum , Matricaria chamomilla L. , Borago officinalis , Cimum basilicum L. , Cuminum cyminum , Thymus vulgaris thymol , Menta xpiperita L. , Rosmarinas officinalis comphora) were tested for their antibacterial activity against five common strains of pathogenic bacteria using disk susceptibility tests. A formulation intended for topical use (Essential Oil Formulation 1) (EOF1) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus as evidenced by zone inhibition diameter measurements when compared to those reported for standard antibiotics. EOF 1 exhibited no activity against Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The second formulation (Essential Oil Formulation 2) (EOF2), intended for inhalation use, inhibited the growth of all five test bacteria strains with zone inhibition diameters two to three times greater than those reported for standard antibiotics. The growth of all five bacteria strains was inhibited when a cotton swab impregnated with EOF 2 was suspended above the bacterial lawn, indicating a true vapor or fume effect by this formulation.

STUDY OF GROSS AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN CYPRINUS CARPIO FISH INFECTED WITH NON-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCUS PART 2: HISTOPATHOLOGY

Asaad M.R. AL-Taee; Faiha S. Khadban; Ali A-A. AL-Mayah

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 111-126
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56604

Sixty fishes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were obtained from the farm of Marine Science Center, University of Basrah. These fishes were divided into six groups (10 fishes/20 liters aquaria). One of these groups was injected intraperitoneally (I.P.) with an isolate of non-hemolytic Streptococcus at a concentration of 1 X 104 CFU/ ml. The other two groups were inoculated with 2.5 X 107 CFU/ ml of the same isolate via water pollution, one with and the other without skin abrasion. The other three groups were left as control and the experimental period was 35 days. The mortality rate was 100% in the I.P. inoculated group during the first week of the experiment, while nil in the other groups. The most important clinical signs of I.P. inoculated fishes were corneal opacity, erratic swimming, hemorrhage on the body surface especially in the base of fins. The other groups did not show any signs. Postmortem examination revealed general pathological changes of septicemia. Hemorrhage in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, gills, intestine, heart and brain of affected fishes. The kidneys were moderately swollen, enlarged spleen, pale liver as well as inflammation was noticed around kidney, heart and eye. Hyperplasia and necrosis of gills have been seen. Ascetic was also seen, while internal examination of other groups which were inoculated by aquarium with and without skin abrasion as well as their control groups did not reveal any obvious postmortem changes during the experiment. Microscopic examination revealed edema and inflammation of brain, eye exhibited hemorrhage and inflammatory cells infiltration, thickening of epithelial tissue of gills followed by necrosis and sloughing of these
tissues. Degeneration and inflammation of myocytes and cardiocytes. Hydropic and fatty degeneration, congestion, hemorrhage and necrosis of hepatic cells. Glomerulonephritis and.
depletion of hemopoitic tissue in kidney

EVALLUTION OF TWO VACCINATION SCHEDULES FOR NEWCASTLE AND INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE

Ali; Nadim; Harith; Dina; A.K; A.N-ALTaher; A.S; A.H; A.S.AL-Mayah; Qasire; H.S. and Ehsan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 127-132
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56605

The aim of this study was to determine the interaction between the Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease vaccines commonly used in the field to control these two important viral diseases. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was employed to measure the antibody titers in chicks sera to ND.IBD vaccine was showed to have adverse effect on the ND vaccine were as the reverse was not true. The results obtained also revealed that better antibody response against ND vaccine was detected when ND vaccine was administered before IBD vaccine. The deleterious effect of IBD vaccine on antibody levels against ND vaccine was low when IBD vaccine was administered at 14 days of age as compared to 7 days of chicken age. No great variation in the antibody titers when chicks were administered ND vaccine containing LaSota or Hitchner B1strain of the virus were observed, although slight better antibody responses were noted for LaSota over HitchnerB1 strain. Vaccination of chicks with ND vaccine of LaSota strain at 7 days followed by vaccination with IBD vaccine at 14 days yielded better antibody titers than Hitchner B1.

THE EXPLORATION OF PARTICIPATE L.ARGININE – NITRIC OXIDE SYSTEM IN PAIN PERCEPTION OF BOTH GENDER MICE

Muhannad A. A. Al-Bayaty

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 133-137
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56606

The L.arginine-Nitric oxide pathway has shown a role in pain felling which is a mediator with modulation effect in dorsal root of ganglionic neurons of spinal cord. The presented study goal was to clarify the influence of sex on the effects of L.arginine mediated nitric oxide on pain arbitration in both sexes of mice. The response time of hot plat test and latency period of tail flick were recorded the pain perception. The results of both groups of control and treated with L.arginine showed decrease of time response of hot plat in male than female and the same result in tail flick latency period of control group. Where as amplify of hot plat response time of male than female in L.NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) treated group. Morphine treated group were increase in all groups as compared with control. These findings might be attributed to that pain felling is intercede through diverse mediators in different sexes of mice male and female, this may possible involves sex hormone. In addition, from the result of L.NAME on pain sensation, it may be recommended that L.arginine-nitric oxide pathway is extra vital in male in comparison with female in pain sensation.

MEASURMENT OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND PROTEIN OF HYDATID CYSTS FLUID IN SHEEP AND COW

Abdul jabber Rasmi; Aiad Muhamed Kahsim; Muslem Abdul Rahman

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 146-150
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56609

The amount of four minerals (Magnesium, Calcium, Selenium and copper) and total protein of hydatid cysts fluid obtained from lung and liver of sheep and cow was checked. Magnesium (Mg+2) and calcium (Ca+2) showed higher levels in cysts of sheep than those of cow which was (8.38, 29.11, 7.90, 25.70 mmol/L) respectively whereas the selenium (Se+) and copper (Cu+) showed a little differences in both species. Total protein amonts were found to have wide range in both animal species.

BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BLOOD IN BROILER FED THIAMIN IN THEIR DIET

Khitam. J.Salih; Ahmed. A. Khalifa; Majeed .H. Majeed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 151-155
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56611

ABSTRACT
210 one day old broiler chicks were used in this study. They were divided in to two groups. The first kept on commercial diet as (control); the second group was given thiamin (vit. Bl) in dose 10 mg /bird was added to same commercial diet. Glucose concentrations, total cholesterol, total protein and the activity of the blood enzymes were determined. Results revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the glucose concentrations, total cholesterol and total serum protein due to thiamin addition. However, no significant effect(p>0.05) for this vitamin on the blood enzymes activity. The physiological impact of these changes were discussed.

A REVIEW OF CONFIRMED PATHOGEN OF DOGS AND CATS IN IRAQ

Saleem Amin Hasso

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 156-162
DOI: 10.33762/bvetr.2007.56612

The pathogens listed under dogs and cats include the pathogens of males and females for the species. The pathogen of cats is lesser than of dogs because of difficulty in catching and handling the cats.
The pathogens are referred by their first laboratory confirmer(s), except for the bacterial pathogens which are listed without the confirmer(s) due to the uncertainty of the first confirmer (s). The microorganismes from healthy tissues are not included. The mentioned investigations and research studies confirmed 82 pathogens in dogs and 26 in cats